Learn more about the particularities of DPA and seal oil through these scientific articles.

Year Author Model Main effects of ADP and seal oil on health Document
METABOLISM
2010 Kaur et al. Sprague Dawley Rats DPA increase DPA in all tissues and DHA in the liver. DPA also partly retro-converted to EPA in liver, adipose tissue, heart and skeletal muscle. The highest incorporation of DHA and DPA in the heart and skeletal muscle compared to the EPA, suggests that these PUFA could play an important role in these tissues. PDF
2011 Kaur et al. Rats The data show that the addition of hepatic cells with DPA (just like with EPA and DHA) down regulates the level of genes and key proteins involved in fat synthesis in liver cells. PDF
2011 Holub et al. Sprague Dawley Rats DPA increased DPA in heart and liver and increased EPA content with the retro-conversion particularly pronounced in the kidney. The serum lipid-lowering potential of dietary DPA and its impact in the kidney with the derived EPA warrants investigation. PDF
2013 Kaur et al. Wistar Rats DPA and DHA β-oxydized significantly less than EPA at 6 h, and higher incorporation of DPA and DHA in skeletal muscle and heart than EPA. PDF
2013 Miller et al.[1] Healthy women (21-30 years old) After 4 days supplementation DPA increased EPA, DPA and DHA content of plasma or RBC lipids, whereas EPA only increased EPA content. N/A
2013 Linderborg et al.[2] Healthy women (20-30 years old) EPA and DPA metabolized differently postprandially. DPA significantly decreased chylomicronemia compared to EPA. N/A
2014 Ghasemi Fard et al. Sprague Dawley Rats Greater excretion of DPA in feces than EPA. However, EPA and DPA similarly increased EPA, DPA and total long chain Omega-3 PUFAs in the liver. PDF
NEUROPROTECTION
2011 Kelly et al.[3] Young rats (20-22 months) and aged rats (3-4 months) EPA increased cortical tissue DPA and DHA in young and old rats and EPA in old rats, whereas DPA increased DPA in young and old rats and DHA in young rats. EPA and DPA similarly down-regulated age-related microglial activation, decreased activation of sphingomyelinase and caspase 3 and restored long-term potentiation and improved spatial memory in the aged rats. N/A
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
2014 Aursnes et al. Mouse neutrophils and human macrophages DPA-derived PD1n-3 DPA significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment during peritonitis of mice and stimulated macrophage phagocytosis and clearance of apoptotic human neutrophils, both to a similar extent to DHA-derived PD1. PDF
2014 Tungen et al. Human Macrophages DPA-derived MaR1n-3 DPA stimulated macrophage phagocytosis and clearance of apoptotic human neutrophils to a similar extent to that of DHA-derived Mar1. N/A
2014 Caroline Morin[4] Wistar Rats The DPA supplementation is able to modify the Omega-3 / Omega-6 diet, thus providing anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties to DPA metabolites. MAG-DPA represents a stable compound which could serve as a precursor for generating a variety of mediators such as resolvins and protectins, both of which can reduce cellular inflammation. Therefore, DPA might be an important factor in pulmonary illnesses characterized by excess airway inflammation. PDF
2015 Skulas-Ray Healthy humans (20-65 years old) A low level of red blood cells containing DPA is associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and triglycerides. These associations may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases. PDF
2015 Caroline Morin Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats (CFA) EPA and DPA showed a significant reduction in the progression and severity of arthritic disease in CFA rats. Following treatments of EPA and DPA, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor were significantly lower compared to untreated CFA rats. PDF
HEART HEALTH
1996 Aursnes et al. Rats Maximum stimulation of endothelial cells (EC) migration by DPA pretreatment (0.5 ug/ml) was achieved at a concentration one-tenth of that required for maximal stimulation by EPA pretreatment (5.0 ug/ml), indicating that DPA is a potent stimulator of EC migration/…/ these data suggest that the stimulative effect of EPA on EC migration occurs via DPA, and that DPA may act as a powerful anti-atherogenic factor. N/A
2010 Neil J. Mann Healthy humans (20-50 years old) The beneficial effects of seal oil supplementation were superior to those of tuna oil, which contained a similar amount of Omega-3, but much more DHA, less EPA, and a minimal amount of DPA. Our findings suggest that DPA, either directly or by retro-conversion through EPA, may be more effective in reducing certain risk factors for cardiovascular disease than DHA. /.../ this study suggests that seal oil can already be used in modified foods as a preventive measure for healthy people or as a treatment aid for people with cardiovascular disease or thrombosis. PDF
2009 Phang et al [5] Human Platelets (ex vivo) AEP was significantly more effective in reducing platelet aggregation compared with DPA and DHA Omega-3. However, different effects have been observed depending on the sex: for women all three Omega-3 were effective, but for men, EPA was more effective than DPA and DHA. N/A
LOWERING TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS
2009 Meyer Hypertriglyceridemic subjects Plasma triglycerides remained unchanged in the placebo group, while reductions of 7 and 14% (P < 0.05) were seen in the fish oil and seal oil groups respectively. Systolic blood pressure improved by 8 and 5 mmHg with seal oil and fish oil respectively (P < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower after seal oil supplementation (P < 0.005) compared with the placebo group. These results indicate that seal oil is as effective as fish oil in lowering plasma triglycerides and blood pressure. PDF
OTHERS
1999 Xiao W et al. Microemulsions Omega-3s in seal oil are relatively more stable and less prone to lipid peroxidation than in fish oil. N/A
2011 Cheema BioF1B Hamsters Unlike fish oil, seal oil did not induce milky plasma in BioF1B hamsters. A seal oil diet showed lower levels of lipids in plasma and liver, as well as reduced levels of plasma and oxidative stress in the liver compared to a fish oil diet. The results of these findings suggest that the human population with Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPL) may have more health benefits from seal oil supplementation than fish oil. PDF
2015 Evan Lewis Male Athletes 21 days supplementation in PUFA N-3 increased the concentration of EPA PUFA n-3 in plasma. Neuromuscular function has been improved through enhanced muscle activation performance and sprint cycling performance was maintained from attenuated Wingate percent power drop. This is one of the first studies to use seal oil Omega-3 supplement as opposed to fish oil which is most commonly used. Seal oil was chosen because mammalian (seal) triacylglycerol molecules have Omega-3 fats primarily in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, as opposed to the sn-2 position of fish oil. Fats in the sn-3 position are preferentially cleaved by sublingual lipases, and the sn-1 fat is cleaved in the small intestine, while the sn-2 fatty acid is left for later esterification. This difference has been shown to promote faster digestion of N-3 seal oil leading to higher incorporation in non-hepatic tissues. PDF

Other benefits of Omega-3 and related scientific articles

  • [i] Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ: Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new recommendations from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003, 23: 151– 152.
  • [ii] Flock M, Kris-Etherton P. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010: implications for cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2011 Dec; 13(6): 499-507.
  • [iii] Laidlaw M, et al. A randomized clinical trial to determine the efficacy of manufacturers’ recommended doses of omega-3 fatty acids from different sources in facilitating cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Lipids Health Dis 2014 Jun 21; 13:99.
  • [iv] EFSA 212 : European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion: Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). EFSA Journal 2012;10(7):2815. [Internet]. [Consulté le 8 juillet 2013]. Disponible à : http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2815.pdf
  • [v] Hartweg J, Perera R, Montori V, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23; (1):CD003205.
  • [vi] Oh R. 2005. Practical applications of fish oil (Ω-3 fatty acids) in primary care. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners 18(1):28-36.
  • [vii] Balk E, Chung M, Lichtenstein A, Chew P, Kupelnick B, Lawrence A, DeVine D, Lau J. 2004. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors and intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 93. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E010-1. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  • [viii] Kremer, J.M. 2000. n23 Fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(suppl):349S–51S.
  • [ix] Olendzki B, Leung K, Van Buskirk S, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: influence on serum lipids. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 201; 2011: 827286.
  • [x] Volker D, Fitzgerald P, Major G, Garg M. 2000. Efficacy of fish oil concentrate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology 27(10):2343-2346.
  • [xi] Gadoth, N. On fish oil and omega-3 supplementation in children: The role of such supplementation on attention and cognitive dysfunction. 2008. Brain Dev. 30: 309-312.
  • [xii] Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi L. 2005a. Cognitive and physiological effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 35(11):691-699.
  • [xiii] van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, Kok JF, van Staveren WA, Dullemeijer C, OldeRikkert MGM, Beekman ATF, de Groot CPGM. 2008. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology 71(6):430-438.
  • [xiv] Simopoulos, A. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases. The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, Washington, D.C (2002)
  • [xv] Walton, A. J. E., Snaith, M. L., Locniskar, M., Cumberland, A. G., Morrow, W. J. W. & Isenberg, D. A. (1991) Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 50: 463–466
  • [xvi] Calder P. N-/ Plyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am/ Clin Nutr 2006; 83:S1505-1519
  • [xvii] Maroon J, Bost J. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (fish oil) as an inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. Surg Neurol 2006; 65: 326-331.
  • [xviii] Barham JB, Edens MB, Fonteh AN, et al. Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in humans. J Nutr 2000; 130:1925-1931.
  • [xix] Seddon, J. et al. Dietary fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration. 2001. Arch. Ophthalmol. 109:1191-1199.
  • [xx] Mills MD. 1999. The eye in childhood. American Family Physician 60:907-918
  • [xxi] European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (ARA) and support of the neural development of the brain and eyes pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The EFSA Journal 794:1-11.
  • [xxii] Hodge W, Barnes D, Schachter HM, Pan Y, Lowcock EC, Zhang L, Sampson M, Morrison A, Tran K, Miguelez M, Lewin G. 2005. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Eye Health. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 117. AHRQ No. 05-E008-2. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  • [xxiii] Mickeborough, T, Lindley M, Montgomery G. Effect of fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and immune function in athletes. Phys Sportmed 2008 Dec; 36 (1): 11-7.

  • [xxiv] Rose DP, Connolly JM: Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemo-preventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 83: 217–244, 1999
  • [xxv] Nakamura K, Kariyazono H, Komokata T, Hamada N, Sakata R, Yamada K. 2005. Influence of preoperative administration of ω-3 fatty acid-enriched supplement on inflammatory and immune responses in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer. Nutrition 21(6):639-645
  • [xxvi] ANTI M, ARMELAO F, MARRA G, PERCESEPE A, BARTOLI GM, PALOZZA P, PARRELLA P, CANETTA C, GENTILONI N, DE VITIS I: Effects of different doses of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation in patients with sporadic colonic adenomas. Gastroenterology 107: 1709-1718, 1994
  • [xxvii] Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, et al. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334:1557-1560.
  • [xxviii] Hanebutt F, Demmelmair H, Schiessl B, et al. Long-chain poluunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) transfer across the placenta. Clin Nutr 2008 Oct; 27 (5): 685-93.
  • [xxix] Helland IC, Smith L, Saarem K, et al. Maternal supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003; 111:39-44.
  • [xxx] Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, Beilin LJ, Taylor AL, Holt PG, Prescott SL. 2003. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112(6):1178-1184.
  • [xxxi] Soderberg M, Edlund C, Kristensson K, Dallner G (1991) Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and in Alzheimer’s disease. Lipids 26:421– 425
  • [xxxii] Yurko-Mauro K. Cognitive and Cardiovascular Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Aging and Cognitive Decline. Curr Alzheimer Res 2010 May 1;7(3):190-6.
  • [xxxiii] Wang W, Shinto L, Connor WE, Quinn JF. 2008. Nutritional biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: the association between carotenoids, n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 13(1):31-38.
  • [xxxiv] Da Rocha C, Kac G. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression. Matern Child Nutr 2012 Jan;8(1):36-48.
  • [xxxv] Uauy, R., Hoffmann, D. R., Peirano, P., Birch, D. G. & Birch, E. E. Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development (2001) Lipids 36, 885–895.
  • [xxxvi] Marszalek JR, Lodish HF. 2005. Docosahexaenoic acid, fatty acid-interacting protein, and neuronal function: breastmilk and fish are good for you. Annual Review of Cellular and Developmental Biology 21:633-657
  • [xxxviii] Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N, Schneider J. 2003. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acid and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology 60(7):940-946.
  • [xxxix] Mills MD. 1999. The eye in childhood. American Family Physician 60:907-918
  • [xl] Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, Whelton PK. Does supplementation of diet with ’fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1429 –1438.
  • [xli] Gow R, Matsudaira T, Taylor E, et al. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):151-6.
  • [xlii] Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels H, Melt-zer HY: Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999; 85:275–291
  • [xliii] Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln J. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb 15;32(2):568-75. Epub 2007 Nov 1.
  • [xliv] Patrick L, Salik R. The effect of essential fatty acid supplementation on language development and learning skills in autism and Aspergers syndrome. Autism-Aspergers Digest 2005;Jan-Feb:36-37.
  • [xlv] Terry, P. et al., 2002. Nutr. Cancer 44:1-6.
  • [xlvi] Patrick L, Salik R. The effect of essential fatty acid supplementation on language development and learning skills in autism and Aspergers syndrome. Autism-Aspergers Digest 2005;Jan-Feb:36-37.
  • [xlvii] Soyland E, Funk J, Rajka G, et al. Dietary supplement of n-3 fatty acids to patients with atopic dermatitis. A multi-center stury. Br J Dermatol 1994; 130:757-764.
  • [xlviii] McCusker M, Grant-Kels J. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol 2010 Jul-Aug; 28(4):440-51.